Having gone for a syllabus change along with its latest pattern for the Computer Based Test mode, UGC NTA NET asked the aspirants to have a base not only in literature but also in language especially how an aspirant of UGC NTA NET competitive exam tackles one liner questions as well the long paragraphs since it in its new syllabus has been asking questions on comprehensions and paragraphs to analyse the reading and the writing skills of the aspirants going to appear at the exam.

Therefore, I Vineet Pandey, with the experience of 8 NET, 2 JRF and 17 SET and the teaching experience in Delhi University for 3 years have assimilated few well-read paragraphs by the lovers of English Literature and also some of the favourites of UGC NTA NET Competitive Exam which will be consisting of 5 series.

Kindly go through them and thank you for the love, support and the understanding that all of you have provided Vineet Pandey and showered with.

25 PARAGRAPHS : MOSTLY LOVED AND READ (part 5)

21 . And a woman who held a babe against her bosom said,
“Speak to us of Children.” And he said:

Your children are not your children.
They are the sons and daughters of Life’s longing for itself.
They come through you but not from you,
and though they are with you, yet they belong not to you.
You may give them your love but not your thoughts.
For they have their own thoughts.
You may house their bodies but not their souls,
for their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow,
which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams.
You may strive to be like them, but seek not to make them like you.
For life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday.
You are the bows from which your children
as living arrows are sent forth.
The archer sees the mark upon the path of the infinite, and
He bends you with
His might that His arrows may go swift and far.
Let your bending in the archer’s hand be for gladness;
for even as he loves the arrow that flies, so
He loves also the bow that is stable.

The Prophet, Khalil Gibran.

Explanation- “Life’s longing for itself”- get the idea that whenever one reads a passage like this he or she is definitely going to understand the mysticism and philosophical aspect of the different versions of life.

Easily put, AL Mustafa when asked about children or parenting imparts his
Knowledge by hitting his audience with the bitter truth that their children are not theirs. Oh! How painful that gets to hear that as parents. Right?

But that is what the Narrator warns parents of. To have the attachment yet feel detached. Because children are not property, they are not things , they are not something parents need to own but the stability of the parents whether biologically, emotionally, spiritually, and materialistically helps them to fly and let their wings as big as they can.

Children are the arrows and the parents are the archers so the bending and the stretching would be needed not being stiff and reluctant. Destinies are interwoven but the individuality remains different.

In short, Children are the flowers from the heaven who come to this earth to keep the wheel of humanity continue.

22 . Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
The evil that men do lives after them;
the good is oft interred with their bones;
So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus
Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:
If it were so, it was a grievous fault,
And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it.
Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest–
For Brutus is an honourable man;
so are they all, all honourable men–
Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral.
He was my friend, faithful and just to me:
But Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
He hath brought many captives home to Rome
whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:
Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?
When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:
Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
You all did see that on the Lupercal
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,
Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?
Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And, sure, he is an honourable man.
I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke,
But here I am to speak what I do know.
You all did love him once, not without cause:
What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him?
O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason. Bear with me;
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me.

Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare.

Explanation- A funeral speech so powerful that it turned its audience into a mob which was ready to kill the conspirators of Caesar’s death.

On being given the reason of his being ambitious for the assassination of Caesar, Anthony came to address the audience and with certain beautiful phrases, repetition and to the point affirmations engulfed with pure emotions delivered one of the most memorable speeches ever.

The emphasis laid on Caesar being ambitious and Brutus honourable revealed so much to the audience. By bringing out the positive attributes of his friend like being compassionate, refusing the crown twice, being loyal to Rome even if he had all the opportunity to go against and even the just and faithful friendship that they shared engrave so much pity and pathos that one can’t help but love not only Caesar but also Anthony for having believed in the goodness of Caesar.

The last two lines truly show the love, respect and affection that Anthony has for his friend.

23 . “Basil, my dear boy, puts everything that is charming in him into his work. The consequence is that he has nothing left for life but his prejudices, his principles, and his common sense. The only artists I have ever known who are personally delightful are bad artists. Good artists exist simply in what they make, and consequently are perfectly uninteresting in what they are. A great poet, a really great poet, is the most unpoetical of all creatures. But inferior poets are absolutely fascinating. The worse their rhymes are, the more picturesque they look. The mere fact of having published a book of second-rate sonnets makes a man quite irresistible. He lives the poetry that he cannot write. The others write the poetry that they dare not realize.”

The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde.

Explanation- Have you ever come across a quotation saying?

“There is no such book as moral or immoral.
Books are either well written or badly written.”
This is Oscar Wilde even going for the relationship between the art and the artist. In the words of Lord Henry, it’s very well depicted how art serves as a mirror. The demarcation of an artist from his or her life is quite visible here.

The passage overall states the fact that an artist can’t take the two roads. If his works are aesthetic, he would be declining materialistically.

Good artists live in the works they create and the bad artists live the works they want to create. The good artists go for life for art’s sake whereas the others go for art for art’s sake.

24 . “The secret of the Great Stories is that they have no secrets. The Great Stories are the ones you have heard and want to hear again. The ones you can enter anywhere and inhabit comfortably. They don’t deceive you with thrills and trick endings. They don’t surprise you with the unforeseen. They are as familiar as the house you live in. Or the smell of your lover’s skin. You know how they end, yet you listen as though you don’t. In the way that although you know that one day you will die, you live as though you won’t. In the Great Stories you know who lives, who dies, who finds love, who doesn’t. And yet you want to know again.
That is their mystery and their magic.”

The God of Small Things Arundhati Roy.

Explanation- Whether the god of small things comes under a great story or not or can be reread thousand times even if the plot is very simple in all its complexities, the reference and metaphor that Arundhati Roy took of “Kathakali”

Showing where and how the story is going to unfold is mesmerising to intellect. Blending the concept of Kathakali with the use of prolepses, Analepses and Paralepses, the passage beautifully defines not only the classical Dance form of Kathakali but also the story- Where it begins, it ends.

An escape for Rahel where she builds an allusion and finds herself peaceful.

The stories which are considered to be classics have no mysteries with them. People can correlate with them every time they come to hear it. This Is the magic that only they can create by unfolding the every veil and aspect of their story. Bringing out the “Rasa” as the Kathakali dancers have to bring forth in their story-telling.

25 . India is constipated with a lot of’ humbug. Take religion. For the Hindu, it means little besides caste and cow-protection. For the Muslim, circumcision and kosher meat. For the Sikh, long hair and hatred of the Muslim. For the Christian, Hinduism with a sola topee. For the Parsi, fire-worship and feeding vultures. Ethics, which should be the kernel of a religious code, has been carefully removed.

Take philosophy, about which there is so much hoo-ha. It is just muddle headedness masquerading as mysticism. And Yoga, particularly Yoga, that excellent earner of dollars! Stand on your head. Sit cross-legged and tickle your navel with your nose. Have perfect control over the senses. Make women come till they cry “Enough!” and you can say “Next, please” without opening your eyes. And all the mumbo-jumbo of reincarnation. Man into ox into ape into beetle into eight million four hundred thousand kinds of animate things. Proof? We do not go in for such pedestrian pastimes as proof! That is Western. We are of the mysterious East. No proof, just faith. No reason; just faith.

Train to Pakistan, Khushwant Singh.

Explanation- The religious behaviour and how people go for the preconceived dogmas of religion and how through this they have various and different notions and preconceptions which are also get reflected in their appearance, thoughts, and the way of living.

Having divulged the differences between all the religious behaviours, he makes a point by saying that the core or the basic belief should be “ETHICS” in all these but somewhere it has been intentionally removed.

The best part about this passage is that it explains things in their funnier ways yet striking the truth so well. Take for the instance the way the concept of incarnation has been brought forward by saying from animals to chimpanzees

To insects to divinity that too uncountable. The East asks for no evidences because the east is too involved with only faith.

Where the co-existence of multiple religious societies should have been the strength, it has turned out to be manipulations in the hands of leaders.
0


Having gone for a syllabus change along with its latest pattern for the Computer Based Test mode, UGC NTA NET asked the aspirants to have a base not only in literature but also in language especially how an aspirant of UGC NTA NET competitive exam tackles one liner questions as well the long paragraphs since it in its new syllabus has been asking questions on comprehensions and paragraphs to analyse the reading and the writing skills of the aspirants going to appear at the exam.

Therefore, I Vineet Pandey, with the experience of 8 NET, 2 JRF and 17 SET and the teaching experience in Delhi University for 3 years haveassimilated few well-read paragraphs by the lovers of English Literature and also some of the favourites of UGC NTA NET Competitive Exam which will be consisting of 5 series.

Kindly go through them and thank you for the love, support and the understanding that all of you have provided Vineet Pandey and showered with.

25 PARAGRAPHS : MOSTLY LOVED AND READ ( part 4)

16 . As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect. He was lying on his hard, as it were armor-plated, back and when he lifted his head a little he could see his dome-like brown belly divided into stiff arched segments on top of which the bed quilt could hardly keep in position and was about to slide off completely. His numerous legs, which were pitifully thin compared to the rest of his bulk, waved helplessly before his eyes.

Franz Kafka, Metamorphosis.

Explanation- Fancy getting one morning up and discovering that you have been transformed into an insect. Absurd? Irrelevant as per your existence.
This is what the protagonist Gregor Samsa went through without any prior caution letting him be the study of many psychological interpretations. The fantasy world where Kafka draws out the change that takes place suddenly reminds his readers of the world’s randomness and purposefulness.
It’s not only a physical transformation that the protagonist goes through but also a metaphorical one where it has been presented that the sheer absurdity of life is change. One can’t have the proper control how the world is going to treat him or her. So, It’s better to have died uselessly feeling an alienation towards people around.
Narrated in the Third Person the reading of the passage makes it a picturesque one.

17 . “You are beautiful, but you are empty,” he went on. “One could not die for you. To be sure, an ordinary passer-by would think that my rose looked just like you– the rose that belongs to me. But in herself alone she is more important than all the hundreds of you other roses: because it is she that I have watered; because it is she that I have put under the glass globe; because it is she that I have sheltered behind the screen; because it is for her that I have killed the caterpillars (except the two or three that we saved to become butterflies); because it is she that I have listened to, when she grumbled, or boasted, or even sometimes when she said nothing. Because she is my rose. And he went back to meet the fox. “Goodbye,” he said. “Goodbye,” said the fox. “And now here is my secret, a very simple secret: It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye.”

The Little Prince, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.

Explanation- One of the best aphorisms of French writing comes out from this passage when the fox who teaches an alien from a steroid B612 The Little Prince the concept of longingness which surely creates a bond unique and special. On being told by a geographer that his rose is ephemeral in nature, the prince starts accepting the rose as something very common. The rose whom he had watered, nourished, protected
And kept off the caterpillars so that she could survive. While giving the lessons on how taming the fox would give the prince the feeling of something considering the prince as his own without letting the prince feel that taming in its other sense is thought to be creating bondage only but the fox gives the meaning a different dimension by saying that taming means creating ties, and ties can be so beautiful once they are from the heart, the fox rejuvenated the love which had got secluded because of the separation from the rose.
At last, The fox gives the prince the best advice by asking him to look for beautiful things from the heart instead of from the eyes.

18 . “Good,” Baba said, but his eyes wondered. “Now, no matter what the mullah teaches, there is only one sin, only one. And that is theft. Every other sin is a variation of theft. Do you understand that?”
“No, Baba Jan,” I said, desperately wishing I did. I didn’t want to disappoint him again.

“When you kill a man, you steal a life,” Baba said. “You steal his wife’s right to a husband; rob his children of a father. When you tell a lie, you steal someone’s right to the truth. When you cheat, you steal the right to fairness. Do you see?”

“There is no act more wretched than stealing, Amir,” Baba said. “A man who takes what’s not his to take, be it a life or a loaf of naan…I spit on such a man. And if I ever cross paths with him, God help him. Do you understand?”

The Kite Runner, Khaled Hosseini.

Explanation- A father’s not only philosophical but practical advice to his son is best reflected here when he does tell his son that no matter what he is being taught theologically but he should remember one thing that there is nothing greater a sin than stealing. He further adds by saying that this sin is not something outwardly but should be dealt inwardly. He correlated the earthly appearance of stealing with the stealing of something greater. Something which goes beyond the human understanding making this passage one of the best philosophically.

19 . “And don’t tell me God works in mysterious ways,” Yossarian continued. “There’s nothing mysterious about it, He’s not working at all. He’s playing. Or else He’s forgotten all about us. That’s the kind of God you people talk about, a country bumpkin, a clumsy, bungling, brainless, conceited, uncouth hayseed. Good God, how much reverence can you have for a Supreme Being who finds it necessary to include such phenomena as phlegm and tooth decay in His divine system of Creation? What in the world was running through that warped, evil, scatological mind of His when He robbed old people of the power to control their bowel movements? Why in the world did He ever create pain?

“Pain?” Lieutenant Scheisskopf’s wife pounced upon the word victoriously. “Pain is a useful symptom. Pain is a warning to us of bodily dangers.” “And who created the dangers?” Yossarian demanded “Why couldn’t He have used a doorbell instead to notify us?”

Joseph Hiller, Catch22.

Explanation- The question of the existence of God amidst wars, and struggles of life has always been a favourite topic for writers and Joseph Hiller with her Dark Humour from the mouth of Yossarian delves in the very basicalities of struggle, God, morality and pain. The rhetorical arguments with the tint of paradox and contradictions serve as a purpose to interpret religion either as a tool or as the value of real faith. A passage which definitely brings out the atheistic approach of the characters involved in the dialogue but also shows the individual approach of their thoughts giving the fine example of many men many faiths.

20 . And a woman who held a babe against her bosom said, “Speak to us of Children.” And he said: Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of Life’s longing for itself. They come through you but not from you, and though they are with you, yet they belong not to you.

You may give them your love but not your thoughts. For they have their own thoughts. You may house their bodies but not their souls, for their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow, which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams.You may strive to be like them, but seek not to make them like you. For life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday.

You are the bows from which your children as living arrows are sent forth. The archer sees the mark upon the path of the infinite, and He bends you with His might that His arrows may go swift and far.

Let your bending in the archer’s hand be for gladness; for even as he loves the arrow that flies, so He loves also the bow that is stable.

The Prophet, Khalil Gibran.

Explanation- “Life’s longing for itself”- get the idea that whenever one reads a passage like this he or she is definitely going to understand the mysticism and philosophical aspect of the different versions of life.

Easily put, AL Mustafa when asked about children or parenting imparts his
Knowledge by hitting his audience with the bitter truth that their children are not theirs. Oh! How painful that gets to hear as parents. Right?

But that is what the Narrator warns parents of. To have the attachment yet feel detached. Because children are not property, they are not things , they are not something parents need to own but the stability of the parents whether biologically, emotionally, spiritually, and materialistically helps them to fly and let their wings as big as they can.

Children are the arrows and the parents are the archers so the bending and the stretching would be needed not being stiff and reluctant. Destinies are interwoven but the individuality remains different.

In short, Children are the flowers from the heaven who come to this earth to keep the wheel of humanity continue.
0


Having gone for a syllabus change along with its latest pattern for the Computer Based Test mode, UGC NTA NET asked the aspirants to have a base not only in literature but also in language especially how an aspirant of UGC NTA NET competitive exam tackles one liner questions as well the long paragraphs since it in its new syllabus has been asking questions on comprehensions and paragraphs to analyse the reading and the writing skills of the aspirants going to appear at the exam.

Therefore, I Vineet Pandey, with the experience of 8 NET, 2 JRF and 17 SET and the teaching experience in Delhi University for 3 years have just assimilated few well-read paragraphs by the lovers of English Literature and also some of the favourites of UGC NTA NET Competitive Exam which will consist of 5 series.

Kindly go through them and thank you for the love, support and the understanding that all of you have provided Vineet Pandey and showered with.

25 PARAGRAPHS : MOSTLY LOVED AND READ (part 3)

11 . And as we struck into the town and up through the—here comes a raging rush of people with torches, and an awful whooping and yelling, and banging tin pans and blowing horns; and we jumped to one side to let them go by; and as they went by I see they had the king and the duke astraddle of a rail—that is, I knew it WAS the king and the duke, though they was all over tar and feathers, and didn’t look like nothing in the world that was human—just looked like a couple of monstrous big soldier-plumes. Well, it made me sick to see it; and I was sorry for them poor pitiful rascals, it seemed like I couldn’t ever feel any hardness against them any more in the world. It was a dreadful thing to see. Human beings can be awful cruel to one another.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn – Mark Twain.

Explanation- One of the most shouted passages from Huckleberry Finn where Mark Twain has beautifully portrayed how humans even being the slaves of someone should not be treated inhumanly. Huck on finding out that King and Duke have become slaves of some tribes felt pitied for them even if they were the ones who had captured Jack.
Mark Twain being the father of the American Realism has brought out the callousness of slavery and the underneath dying hidden meaning of humanity and the behavioural patterns humans show to each other by saying

“Human beings can be awful cruel to one another.”

12 . In this country, our courts are thegreat leveller, and in our courts all men are created equal. I’m noidealist to believe firmly in the jury system. That is no ideal tome. It is a living, working reality. Gentlemen, a court is nobetter than each man of you sitting before me on this jury. Acourt is only as sound as the men who make it up. I am confidentthat you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence youhave heard, come to a decision, And restore this defendant to hisfamily. In the name of God, do your duty. In the name of God,believe Tom Anderson.

To Kill a Mocking Bird, Harper Lee

Explanation- The closing arguments by Atticus Finch one of the Most famous cinematic heroes of all time present before the American society the ways how “institutionalized Racism”, :”Cultural Ignorance” , “Social Inequality” and “Racial Discrimination” can be overcome once one learns how to be just.
He asks the judiciary to think and act beyond a nationality where the justice is neither denied nor delayed. The white man standing against the prejudiced society to defend the black using the innate morality of humanity makes this Southern Gothic book a well read. Atticus with his powerful speech urges the jury in the court to do their duty of God to do right. The use of the immortal Declaration of American Revolutionary Period

“All men are created equal”

brings forth the essence of the dialogue as well as the novel.

13 . “How can I live without thee, how forego Thy sweet converse, and love so dearly joined, to live again in these wild woods forlorn?
Should God create another Eve, and I Another rib afford, yet loss of thee Would never from my heart; no, no, I feel The link of nature draw me: flesh of flesh, Bone of my bone thou art, and from thy state Mine never shall be parted, bliss or woe.

However, I with thee have fixed my lot, Certain to undergo like doom; if death Consort with thee, death is to me as life; So forcible within my heart I feel The bond of nature draw me to my own, My own in thee, for what thou art is mine; Our state cannot be severed, we are one, One flesh; to lose thee were to lose myself.”

― John Milton, Paradise Lost

Explanation- The forbidden sin and the never ending repentance are very much visible in this passage where Adam and Eve are presented as the fallen creatures. The justification of God by banishing Eve from the heaven over surrounds Adam with the gloomy mood.
He keeps thinking about his alone state where he with the virtue of selfless love declares that Eve is a part of him and their destiny has been attached as the death to him with Eve would be like a life and to live without her in the heaven means to live without a body. He even goes further and anticipates whether God would be ribbing him out again yet he feels the miserable loss in the heart because their weal and woe are connected eternally and infinitely.
One of the best passages in English Literature to showcase the imperfections of humanity, Adam’s True Love and deflation of Christine doctrine.

14 . “But I like the inconveniences.”
“We don’t,” said the Controller. “We prefer to do things comfortably.”
“But I don’t want comfort. I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, and I want goodness. I want sin.”
“In fact,” said Mustapha Mond, “you’re claiming the right to be unhappy.”
“All right then,” said the Savage defiantly, “I’m claiming the right to be unhappy.”
“Not to mention the right to grow old and ugly and impotent; the right to have syphilis and cancer; the right to have too little to eat; the right to be lousy; the right to live in constant apprehension of what may happen to-morrow; the right to catch typhoid; the right to be tortured by unspeakable pains of every kind.” There was a long silence.

“I claim them all,” said the Savage at last.

Brave New World, Aldous Huxley

Explanation- The well depicted passage which manifests the paradoxical mind of the savage John who having understood the conflict of choices decides to be adhered to the imperfections of life as the beauty and not something unpleasant arousing the emotions and breaking away the mechanical cord.
His acceptance of being inconvenient, being human in its all forms whether physically involved, emotionally vulnerable with the feeling of doubts that may rise some predetermined or uncertain circumstances in life- the complete influence of reading Shakespeare.
The last phrase before the long silence “I claim them all”explicates
Thatthe savage all together became a human.

15 . “It was as if that great rush of anger had washed me clean, emptied me of hope, and, gazing up at the dark sky spangled with its signs and stars, for the first time, the first, I laid my heart open to the benign indifference of the universe.
To feel it so like myself, indeed, so brotherly, made me realize that I’d been happy, and that I was happy still. For all to be accomplished, for me to feel less lonely, all that remained to hope was that on the day of my execution there should be a huge crowd of spectators and that they should greet me with howls of execration.”

― Albert Camus, TheStranger

Explanation- Who can better delineate such scene with a sense of absurdity where the main protagonist passionately waits for his demise?
Albert Camus shows his readers from the very beginning of the novel that life is meaningless and one just creates meaning out of emptiness which resides deep down in all of us.
This passage though speaks for itself so much that the philosophical question whether one dies by living or lives by dying becomes a cliché in itself. Whether to be indifferent of everything around or find the meaning within draws people to feel alienated and lost with no hope pointing out the absurdist thought that God doesn’t exist and the world one lives in is deprived of any rationality, true meaning and absolute truth.
It’s better to surrender to the purposelessness of the existence than to recreate anything out of it with a sense of purpose.
0


Having gone for a syllabus change along with its latest pattern for the Computer Based Test mode, UGC NTA NET asked the aspirants to have a base not only in literature but also in language especially how an aspirant of UGC NTA NET competitive exam tackles one liner questions as well the long paragraphs since it in its new syllabus has been asking questions on comprehensions and paragraphs to analyse the reading and the writing skills of the aspirants going to appear at the exam.

Therefore, I Vineet Pandey, with the experience of 8 NET, 2 JRF and 17 SET and the teaching experience in the Delhi University for 3 years have just assimilated few well-read paragraphs by the lovers of English Literature and also some of the favourites of UGC NTA NET Competitive Exam which will consist of 5 series.
Kindly go through them and thank you for the love, support and the understanding that all of you have provided Vineet Pandey and showered with.

25 PARAGRAPHS: MOSTLY LOVED AND READ ( part 2)

6 . But as the mind does not exist unless leagued with the soul, therefore it must have been that, in Ahab’s case, yielding up all his thoughts and fancies to his one supreme purpose; that purpose, by its own sheer inveteracy of will, forced itself against gods and devils into a kind of self-assumed, independent being of its own. Therefore, the tormented spirit that glared out of bodily eyes, when what seemed Ahab rushed from his room, was for the time but a vacated thing, a formless somnambulistic being, a ray of living light, to be sure, but without an object to colour, and therefore a blankness in itself.

—- Moby Dick, Herman Melville

Explanation- Ahab a tireless spirit who when faced with injustice and sadness of life decides to end them by facing them instead of accepting them as something already fated. He defied his fate and found the purpose in going against his fate. When the people of his age find reclusion and surrender to their situations, he nullified god and his ways.
A doer more and a dreamer less. He cast away his pleasures and safety just to pursue what his soul longs for. The pure and defiant heart who maddened by his desire to revenge keeps even looking for it in his sleep.

7 . “Deep in her soul, however, she was waiting for something to happen. Like a sailor in distress, she would gaze out over the solitude of her life with desperate eyes, seeking some white sail in the mists of the far-off horizon. She did not know what this chance event would be, what wind would drive it to her, what shore it would carry her to, whether it was a longboat or a three-decked vessel, loaded with anguish or filled with happiness up to the portholes. But each morning, when she awoke, she hoped it would arrive that day, and she would listen to every sound, spring to her feet, feel surprised that it had not come; then at sunset, always more sorrowful, she would wish the next day were already there.”

—- Madame Bovary, Gustav Flaubert

Explanation- A woman failing to understand what she desires in her life. Not finding something worth-living and fighting for which or whom she can own makes her feel so distressed that she eventually takes her life. May be waiting for a light to let her feel that happiness can even be found in the darkest hours.
She was desperately looking for something that she wished to happen to her everyday but seeking out would become more difficult in her monotonous life thus making her get involved with the existential peripheries of life so that she could at least get relieved from the callousness of her inner desire.

8 . “So you see ’’, said Stepan Arkadyich, ‘you’re a very wholesome man. That is your virtue and your defect. You have a wholesome character, and you want all of life to be made up of wholesome phenomena, but that doesn’t happen. So you despise the activity of public service because you want things always to correspond to their aim, and that doesn’t happen. You also want the activity of the individual man always to have an aim, that love and family life always be one. And that doesn’t happen. All the variety, all the charm, all the beauty of life are made up of light and shade.”

—- Anna Karenina, Leo Tolstoy

Explanation- If one has to find the meaning of life, one first will have to learn how differentiations complete each other and make life whole.

“All of life consists of the parts of something or the other.”

The wholesomeness comes from varieties. Light and shadow, public and private, individual and social together form the beauty and charm that one wants to experience in one’s life. Here the opposite of light is shade instead of darkness which shows the human quality of the existence. The shade or the shadow is the result of the existence once one understands that light automatically falls onto them creating a complete picture of what exists there between the lines.

9 . Women should be respected as well!
Generally speaking, men are held in great esteem in all parts of the world, so why shouldn’t women have their share? Soldiers and war heroes are honoured and commemorated, explorers are granted immortal fame, martyrs are revered, but how many people look upon women too as soldiers?…Women, who struggle and suffer pain to ensure the continuation of the human race, make much tougher and more courageous soldiers than all those big-mouthed freedom-fighting heroes put together!”One of the many questions that have often bothered me is why women have been, and still are thought to be, so inferior to men. It’s easy to say it’s unfair, but that’s not enough for me; I’d really like to know the reason for this great injustice!”

― Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl

Explanation- The striking feature of this holocaust writing is that a young girl who is hardly going to cross her Fourteen is talking about how women should be treated and respected as well as giving the reasons why they should be putting them equal to the other sections of the society ruled by men.
The very first line asks the readers to know that the half population must be treated not only with the equity but also equality giving a feministic approach to the passage.
She in her diary doesn’t claim to be just a girl but somewhere feels that she is a woman letting her feel that women should be revered for who they are and cherished for their independency gaining an inward strength and plenty of courage that keeps the continuation of the existence of the humanity on this earth.

10 . By hook or by crook, I hope that you will possess yourselves of money enough to travel and to idle, to contemplate the future or the past of the world, to dream over books and loiter at street corners and let the line of thought dip deep into the stream. For I am by no mean confining you to fiction. If you would please me—and there are thousands like me—you would write books of history and biography, and criticism and philosophy and science. …Young women, you are, in my opinion, disgracefully ignorant. You have never made a discovery of any sort of importance. You have never shaken an empire or led an army into battle. The plays of Shakespeare are not by you, and you have never introduced a barbarous race to the blessings of civilization. What is your excuse?

—- A Room of One’s Own, Virginia Woolf.

Explanation – A direct and straight declaration for the girls of the upcoming generation. More than an urge to discover oneself and explore the worth.
Virginia Woolf not only asks the audience and the readers to have a handful of money and the space of one’s own but also questions whether they will also have the capacity to write their own story not only restricted to fiction but also of different disciplines.
She does raise a question on female subjectivity and hopes that the generation ahead will find its own ways to be free from any kind of limit.
0


Having gone for a syllabus change along with its latest pattern for the Computer Based Test mode, UGC NTA NET asked the aspirants to have a base not only in literature but also in language especially how an aspirant of UGC NTA NET competitive exam tackles one liner questions as well the long paragraphs since it in its new syllabus has been asking questions on comprehensions and paragraphs to analyse the reading and the writing skills of the aspirants going to appear at the exam.

Therefore, I Vineet Pandey, with the experience of 8 NET, 2 JRF and 17 SET and the teaching experience in the Delhi University for 3 years have just assimilated few well-read paragraphs by the lovers of English Literature and also some of the favourites of UGC NTA NET Competitive Exam which will consist of 5 series.
Kindly go through them and thank you for the love, support and the understanding that all of you have provided Vineet Pandey and showered with.

25 PARAGRAPHS: MOSTLY LOVED AND READ ( part 1)


1 . We believe that we can change the things around us in accordance with our desires we believe it because otherwise we can see no favourable outcome. We do not think of the outcome which generally comes to pass and is also favourable: we do not succeed in changing things in accordance with our desires, but gradually our desires change. The situation that we hoped to change because it was intolerable becomes unimportant to us. We have failed to surmount the obstacle, as we were absolutely determined to do, but life has taken us round it, led us beyond it, and then if we turn round to gaze into the distance of the past, we can barely see it, so imperceptible has it become.”

– Marcel Proust, In Search of Lost Time.

Explanation– The Proustian philosophy of enjoying the everyday moments and appreciate life with its greater intensity is what this passage tries to convey by alluding out how the change of the course lets one change the perception also. One doesnot think of the things present before the eyes thus creating a hallucination of what one

“Perceivesand what one achieves.”

The appreciation of existence with the philosophical-psychological inquiry by getting into the root of first identifying with oneself and then distinguishing that self from other individuals by removing any obstacle and therefore creating meanings out of life.

2 . “Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul. Lo-lee-ta: the tip of the tongue taking a trip of three steps down the palate to tap, at three, on the teeth. Lo. Lee. Ta. She was Lo, plain Lo, in the morning, standing four feet ten in one sock. She was Lola in slacks. She was Dolly at school. She was Dolores on the dotted line. But in my arms she was always Lolita. Did she have a precursor? She did, indeed she did. In point of fact, there might have been no Lolita at all had I not loved, one summer, an initial girl-child. In a princedom by the sea. Oh when? About as many years before Lolita was born as my age was that summer. You can always count on a murderer for a fancy prose style. Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, exhibit number one is what the seraphs, the misinformed, simple, noble-winged seraphs, envied. Look at this tangle of thorns.”

— Vladimir Nabokov, Lolita

Explanation- Remember Shakti Kapoor saying Lolita.
One of the most rhythmic and rhetorical paragraphs which not only introduce the main character but also his indulged and psychological engrossment with a teen girl.
Insane diction, bizarre characterization and the genius of the story-telling will let the readers get in with the flow of Humbert’s mind but also asks one to look into one’s consciousness making the readers create a balance between what is real and where the truth lies.
When one knows the use of the Freudian concept of repressed emotions and the psychosexual development, one will look through not only this passage but also through the other passages of this novel as something masterly accomplished and having no moral or social connection but only the richness and an understanding of the characters sometimes either with sympathy or sometimes the grossness with the protagonist’s actions.

3 . “I love you without knowing how, or when, or from where. I love you simply, without problems or pride: I love you in this way because I do not know any other way of loving but this, in which there is no I or you, so intimate that your hand upon my chest is my hand, so intimate that when I fall asleep your eyes close.”

― Pablo Neruda, 100 Love Sonnets

Explanation- Pablo Neruda’s most sited lines of all time. Simple diction but an in-depth feeling and mysticism where the narrator has no clue how, when, why and from where he has been in love with the other character whom he addresses in second person. The narrator finds difficulty in defining the ways but he does explain that between these two there remains no disparity rather they are two yet one and still internally represented.
This representation is so intimate that when one closes the eyes, as the result of that the other falls asleep and there remains no physical differences between them too.
The old theme of soul mate providing a metaphysical study of this passage with a hint of dramatic monologue.

4 . “Sometimes fate is like a small sandstorm that keeps changing directions. You change direction but the sandstorm chases you. You turn again, but the storm adjusts. Over and over you play this out, like some ominous dance with death just before dawn. Why? Because this storm isn’t something that blew in from far away, something that has nothing to do with you. This storm is you. Something inside of you. So all you can do is give in to it, step right inside the storm, closing your eyes and plugging up your ears so the sand doesn’t get in, and walk through it, step by step. There’s no sun there, no moon, no direction, no sense of time. Just fine white sand swirling up into the sky like pulverized bones. That’s the kind of sandstorm you need to imagine.
And you really will have to make it through that violent, metaphysical, symbolic storm. No matter how metaphysical or symbolic might be, make no mistake about it: it will cut through flesh like a thousand razor blades. People will bleed there, and you will bleed too. Hot, red blood. You’ll catch that blood in your hands, your own blood and the blood of others.And once the storm is over you won’t remember how you made it through, how you managed to survive. You won’t even be sure, in fact, whether the storm is really over. But one thing is certain. When you come out of the storm you won’t be the same person who walked in. That’s what this storm’s all about.”

– Haruki Murakami, Kafka on the Shore

Explanation- Timeless, Directionless and a kind of fate which surrounds oneself with a storm not mentioned geographically but metaphorically and symbolically.
The fate being an inevitable force is not something that one finds outside but inside. To battle with this inevitability one has to find oneself as once one gets out of it, he or she will no longer be what he or she used to be.

“Change is the only constant.”

It’s a metaphysical search which one has to go alone without letting others get into it. Some storms don’t need a cognitive understanding as put easily in Murakami’s own words.

“A story that still has no counterevidence is still worth pursuing for.”

5 . “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way.

— A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens

Explanation-The background of the French revolution and the 18thcentury England has very well beensummed up in this passage. Two opposites, two paradoxes making it sound beautifully rhythmic. Two cities Paris and London being mentioned have to go through a historical, political and social turmoil where there was a political uprising for the better future yet ancient degradation morally.
People had gained new hopes but along with this tantalizing hope came a kind of despair which definitely suggested the loss of humanity.

“The best of the time was ahead as tyranny was to meet its fatal end but the worst was also to be seen where a lot of deaths and slaughtering were to be carried out. Advanced advancements occurred while failing to grasp the essence of everything.”
0


TOP 20 MODERN POEMS


Why is modern literature a hard nut to crack?

Have you ever been through a situation where someone just stared at, appreciated, took inspiration from your dressing sense, complicated art or writing for having abstract elements and reflecting your perspective in a style either for your not so coexisting thoughts, feelings, a chasm between the inner and outer reality?

Ezra Pound once stated inhis essay titled

“Make It New.”

So, what is This “IT” in his famous dictum- A theory, criticism, fraction, philosophy, psychology or anything that paves the way to something greater yet intelligible?

Usually, Modernism is thought to be fashion in vogue especially clothing because it is the first thing to get noticed visually but taken into a broader sense modernism has to be of the fact of the sudden and abrupt yet an invisible gradual change.

Is it a herculean task to understand modernism or a cake walk to get through its concepts and interrelations not only with the two world wars, the sinking of Titanic, assassination of the Australian prince, the high rise of inflation and migration in small countries after the crashing of the wall street, the demise of queen Victoria and a very famous phrase by Virginia Woolf showing the mind set of individuality and not of humanity

“In 1910, the human character changed”

But also with the publication of Interpretation of Dreams(1899),Theories of Einstein, Max Planck , the inner working of mind by Sigmund Freud and expansion of it with a little modification into “collective unconsciousness”?

So many things either going paradoxically, hand in hand or showing multifarious tendency which resulted in aloofness and disconnection from theouter reality.

The strain of grasping or comprehending modern age or literature has to deal with the comprehension of the underneath simple and valuable structurein their fragmentations and straight or direct message.

Therefore, I Vineet Pandey, would always say that modern age or modern literature is very imperative as far as NTA NET JRF is concerned because Modern age and literature gives wings to many things to fly together and all of them can be interpreted with various approaches and findings.


 

IMPORTANT POEMS ( FOR NTA NET JRF ) :-

The Waste Land (1922) :

Not having any structural unity but encompasses as one of the best modernist poems. The five sections all together combined show Eliot’s concept of “Tradition and Individual Talent”.
Rich in mythologies, figures and having the referential nature, Eliot very meticulously uses free verse to convey the hidden message which is simple to its readers.

The Love song of J Alfred Prufrock (1915):-

The difference between Camus’ main character in The Stranger (1942) and Eliot’s Prufrock is that both are disconnected from the world but one is completely detached while the other is in a constant observation around his self being too anxious.
“Prufrock” is one of the best examples of how a character’s inner self keeps on changing the way he keeps on moving towards endlessness of life.
The first published poem of Eliot as a writer, highly influenced by Dante, Shakespeare and Thomas Gray.

The Second Coming (1919) :-

Futuristic and deeply symbolist in its nature, the second coming has a spiritual message in cognito of an invisible persona.
Later influenced many writers to delve deep into the widening gap occurring in the modern age and a feeling of alienation from the tradition.

Sailing to Byzantium (1928) :-

Modern age did reflect a loss in one self and to seek that voidness many writers sought resort to escapism in the form of spirituality.
Spirituality is finding an invisible paradise and the meaning of life eternally but the irony of the old character gets mirrored back when W B Yeats starts the poem with the line

“There is no home for old.”

Leaves of Grass (1855):-

Criticized for its obscenityand talking about sexuality, Walt Whitman takes a very different approach towards this poem later adding an elegy on the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
Authenticity and the showcase of American self with the influence of transcendentalism recreated leaves of grass as one of the best of its age.

Pioneers O Pioneers (1865) :-

Imagist, allegorical and exhibiting manifest destiny, Walt Whitman’s support for the pioneers of America who went for the exploration addressing them as “WE” became one of the literary motivations for the people of America.

The Weary Blues (1926):-

Symbolic as the color struggle for the black and written during the Harlem renaissance, the weary blues by Langston Hughesis all gloomy yet takes delight in celebrating the blues.

Howl (1956) :-

Controversial for its performance and was criticized for the use of the sexual words directly, this poem by Allen Ginsberg divided into three parts, a footnote and a rhythmic theme is very well known among the beat generation.

The Yellow House in the Corner (1989): –

The title taken from Rita Dave’s first collection, the yellow house in the corner depicts the harsh reality of “Change”. How even the smallest of the smallest change of a vowel can have a greater impact in the society and the community as whole.
Descriptive in details, musical and historically significant along with allusionsmake this poem a must read.

The Soldier( 1914) :-

Rupert Brooke’s most circulated and read poems of all because of its theme of sheer patriotism and the honour and achievements of a soldier. Comes under as war poetry but gets into the frame of a modern one since the love for one’s own country amidst the elements of loss, repentance, chaos and dislocation is praise worthy but an eye-opener too.
Love for the country land is apparent when the speaker says

“ Even if I die somewhere else in a foreign land, that land will be London for me.”

The Negro Speaks of the River (1940):-

A little bit romantic in type but a lot historical in sense. Langston Hughes while journeying through Mississippi river enchanted by its beauty composed the poem and brought forth the hidden desire of the Afro-American people struggling to find their space in a situation when they were neglected racially and historically as well.

Has talked about and connectedvarious rivers of Africa like Euphrates, Congo, Nile and Mississippi together. While enjoying the journey he talks about his cultural root to have grown up deep like these rivers which is evident in the words

“I’ve known rivers : Ancient Dusky Rivers. My Soul has grown deep like the rivers.”

Later he dedicated this poem to W E B DuBois.

Dulce et Decorum Est (1920) :-

“How sweet and honourable it is to die for one’s own country.”

Dulce et Decorum Est pro patria mori – what can be better to a soldier than the famous maxims and poemswhen it comes to talking about wars and the inspirations needed for the psychological and mental stability.
But why did Wilfred Owen in the last line of the poem call it an “OLD LIE”?
Did he want to give a message through the title in reverse sarcasm?
Or maybe he condemns the exaltation and the glory that a newbie in the field gets when he dies with the compensation in a sentence that

“At least I sacrificed my life for my own country in a WAR.”

Church Going(1955):-

In the midst of the bafflement and confusion created by wars, political upheaval and a break away from religion, Philip Larkin tries to build a hope or faith but also an escapism through the use of religion by visiting the church not as a regular church goer but as an explorer.
No matter whether one accepts the place of the church as a religious one or an exploration, Philip Larkin asserts that buildings like these should be kept for a better place for humanity as they provide social gatherings and let the community come together no matter what.

The Hollow Men(1925):-

The recurring theme of voidness and fractions structured in five sections, the poem breaks through the allusions from Joseph Conrad, William Morris, Rudyard Kipling, Shakespeare, to Guy Fawkes.
The final stanza and the repetition of the sentence

“This is the way the world ends”

Thrice shows how much Eliot emphasizes and is willing to send the message

“Not with a bang but a whimper.”

September 1 1939(1939) :-

Alluded to Easter 1916 by W B Yeats and Carl Jung’s Psychology and Religion (1938), the poem that is controversial for its one line

“We must love one another or die.”

Structure within structure, meanings within meanings and an ideology within an ideology, W H Auden has very well discussed about the intolerance of homosexuality giving a universal message that differences whether in sexual orientation, class, thoughts, race should be accepted.
Adhering to the idea of “universal love”, the poem has become a major read.

I Taught Myself to Live Simply (1912):-

The philosophy of how life consists in the happiness of small things.

“Simplethings in life can be looked with a different outlook and enjoyed truly.”

Simplicity here is all about how one enjoys the surroundings around and gets so involved with the happenings of life that one should not even be aware of any outer disturbance.

The Cantos( 1925) :-

Was on its way to be a classic but frustrated, Ezra Pound left it incomplete.
Crafted with 116 sections that too in prose style and talking about the economical, governmental, and cultural themes, along with the addition of characters and sayings from China and European countries.
The use of the myths of Eliot and the progressive consciousnessof Joyce to decipher the fragmentations in history and personality, the contrasting nature of the moon and the sun but creating a balance between, being controversial for its too much experimental structure and publications in roman numerical except 85 to 109 only being to have been published in Arabic numerals.

“I(a” or “the leaf falls” (1958) :-

Not only a poem but also a deep exploration of the philosophy of life by Edward Estlin Cummings, the poet known for his intricate style of orthography and the specific use of the lower cases until and unless the capitalization is necessary.
Reading Edward Estlin Cummings is not straining until and unless one has been through the disintegration in his poems and language.
The poem mentioned above is one of the best creative geniuses by Cummings depicting that human life just like a single leaf which falls from the tree has its structure in loneliness but the base speaks of everything coming together even if they are in their dissociations and fragmentations.

In Celebration of My Uterus() :-

One of the foremost female writers to have talked about the reproductive organs like “uterus”, abortion, menstruation, motherhood and sexuality, Anne Saxton- the confessional and Pulitzer prize winner writer has wittingly talked about the motherhood and how through the first line of the poem, it has talked about the beauty of the uterus to carry a child within

“Everyone in me is a word; I’m beating all my wings.”

The beauty of the reproductive organs of women has always been a matter of negligence but Anne Saxton beautifully in two lines summed up

“in celebration of the woman I’m; and of the soul of the woman I’m.”

Sea Poppies (1916) :-

Hilda Doolittle like all the other writers of her age sought for what she saw and felt. Her poems are the best examples of “Imagist” movement.
In love with nature , she outstandingly gives the impressions of the images of the “poppy”- a kind of the sea plant and its comparison using the language and the adjectives to comingle naturalism, imagism,, symbolism and her own conscious emotions.

PS: – Do study “SEA OF POPPIES” by Amitav Ghosh.
0


Nonfiction is a very recent genre added in the syllabus of UGC NTA NET JRF and also has varieties ranging from on the themes of apartheid to bilateral political topics, from spirituality to economical discussions.
Even the honourable UGC has asked questions on the issue of Babri Mosque Demolition.
So, here I Vineet Pandey with the experience of 8 NET, 2 JRF and 17 SET recommend these 25 Nonfictions to go through and believe that you will love the variations that I have provided you with.

Have a happy reading!
Lots of Love.
Regards,
Vineet Pandey
(2 JRF, 8 NET, 17 SET)

1. Home and Exile(2001)


The Empire Fights Back, My Home Under Imperial Fire and Today the Balance of Stories- the three lectures which Chinua Achebe gave in 1998 with the subjects like his culture “Igbo” and its definition of “Tribe” versus “Nation”, his childhood home and people.
By mentioning of the names like Joyce Cary, Elspeth Huxley and Joseph Conrad , he does highlight how Africans have been or are depicted by Europeans and says that

                                                      “Africans should be given a voice only by Africans.”

2. India-A Million Mutinies Now(1990)

V S Naipaul’s third book in his non-fictional Indian Trilogy dealing with his search for his ancestry along with the variety of perspectives on Caste System, Religion , Agriculture and Industrial progression through the tours of the different cities of India from Bombay and Madras to Calcutta and Delhi.
The travelogue which manifests the individual struggles, fragmentation and disorientation in the era of Emergency in India declaring it to be the nation on the verge of a new change.

3. Imaginary Homelands(1981-1992)

The intellectual, critical, political, Religious and autobiographical arguments can be found in the essays divided into six sections written within ten years.
The most importantly his plight of being a migrant , the power of imagination in Literature and how the treatment of Literature should be considered to be in its universal form instead of the

“ghetto mentality” in the essay “Commonwealth Literature doesn’t Exist.”

Salman Rushdie does justify the title “Imaginary Homelands “
by stating that the lands in Literature or works of fiction are homes and the place completely imagined giving this work the touch of antiessentialist perspective.

4. Letters to Uncle Sam(1951-1954)

Sadat Hassan Manto’s nine letters written on the request of the US embassy to be featured in its journal for which Manto didn’t even take more than Rs 200/- even if he was being offered Rs 500/- per letter.
Manto very satirically and precisely has put the Pak-US bilateral relationship which was just Flourishing when he wrote these letters pointing out how the United States tries to meddle with the affairs in sub continental affairs.
Historical, political, cultural, and international relations along with Pak’s foreign policy, Russian Communism, and American Imperialism have been widely and honestly discussed by Manto in these letters.

5. What Young India Wants(2012)

The variety of speeches and essays ranging from politics, society, educational system, moral responsibilities, corruption to the improvement of Indian economy through social reforms.
Being the icon of the youth and having faced all the contemporary issues himself, Chetan Bhagat unearths what lies in the heart of the young India- the dream of a free and forward-thinking India.

6. Nationalism (1917)

Rabindra Nath Tagore’s concept of “Nationalism” is antinational in itself. He is against the idea that people should give more importance to “Nationalism” than “Humanism”.
He, in his three lectures delivered in Japan clearly, mentions how the west commercializes and politicizes the word nationalism.
He further adds that India having a very different social construct from that of west should abstain herself from adopting and adapting to this notion of nationalism. The base of the unity should be more spiritual and natural than political and artificial. He states

“ National histories are just chapters in a bigger book of history of men.”

He preaches people to acquire the universal concept of humanity by balancing the self-interest along with something bigger than the self itself.
PS- Do study the Tagore-Gandhi debate on nationalism.

7. The Accidental Prime Minister: The Making and Unmaking of Manmohan Singh(2014)

The movie released on 11th of January 2019 starring Anupam Kher created a stir amidst the General Elections of India 2019.
Sanjaya Baru who had been the media advisor to Manmohan Singh from May 2004 to August 2008 in his memoir criticized him for being the “subservient” and not being in the total control of his post and the PMO as well.
He claimed that Singh was mainly sharing power with the then president of Congress Party Sonia Gandhi where he was more accountable to the party than to the nation.
On being published, it had created a lot of controversy and raised questions on the integrity of Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister of India.

8. Common Sense(1775-1776)

Published anonymously in 1776 by Thomas Paine against the British colonialism and Royal Monarchical rule in America with 40 pages divided into 4 sections made this pamphlet be accepted and read by the every section of the American society because of its direct appeal for the independence of the 13 colonies from Britain.
The use of the colloquial language and a simple structure to propagate the American revolution and adopt the egalitarian government make his pamphlet one of the most popular, circulated and sold in the American history till date.

9. Nature(1836)

The essay compiled in a set of lectures with 8 sections delivered in Boston by Ralph Waldo Emerson simplistically concludes Wordsworth’s notion for nature

“Nature never betrays the heart that loves her.”

Where Wordsworth presents Nature in its romantic form Emerson gives it a transcendental approach.
He explores the idea of nature being something beyond and spiritual where it helps humans surrender to solitude resulting in the metaphysical study of the relationship between humans and nature and how capable nature is to create reality taking men away from anything societal and letting them feel the vastness of something visible yet beyond one’s ken.

10. Civil Disobedience(1849)

The first line of the essay

“the government which rules the least; rules the best”

Promotes the idea how the government which doesn’t work for the benefits of its subjects is of no use and should have to be disobeyed.
Experiencing the injustice done by the government with the slaves to promote slavery and the declaration of war against Mexico in 1846, Henry David Thoreau himself refused to pay taxes and spent a night in jail thus propounding the idea of resistance, and disobedience.
An individual has all the right to go against an unjust government which does nothing but harm the rights of its citizens.
This set of lectures later influenced the key thinkers like Mohandas Gandhi resulting in the movement called “Satyagrah”, Martin Luther King Junior and Martin Buber.

11. Addresses at the Parliament of Religions(1893)

The first citation “Brothers and Sisters of America” had Swamivivekanand introduce India and Hinduism on the big platform where he proudly exhibited the universal aspects of Hinduism and how each and every religion are interconnected to each other giving the broader spectrum to the word “Religion”. The religions in the east could be taken as a light for the people in the west letting them blend yet be different from each other.
The positive presentation of Hinduism as a religion which teaches the world both “tolerance” and “universal acceptance” and something of spiritual value which serves good to others and a selfless service to human kind is still considered to be one of the greatest speeches ever delivered by an Indian on the international platform.

12. Annihilation of Caste(1936)

Dr Ambedkar’s self-published magnum opus in which he has vehemently criticised the caste system and how it deprives the untouchables of their basic rights for education, profession , labour even something like not being able to drink water from the particular well and their indulgence in the inhumane human labour just because of their social strata.
He does ask for the burning of the hindu scriptures just because they somewhere “legitimatize” this indifference towards a certain class. The burning of Manusmriti in Maharashtra by him is such an example. He fortifies that Hindu scriptures do nothing but subjugate the rights of people coming from the lower socioeconomical background even of the suppression of female interests.
The annotations, arguments and referential based clarification makes this one a worth read.
PS- Do study Arundhati Roy’s “The Doctor and The Saint” (2017) for a Gandhi-Ambedkar debate.

13. Battleground Telengana: Chronicle of an Agitation(2011)

This book by Kingshuk Nag, the editor associated with the Times of India, deals in the Telengana movement and how it has taken shape in and before the formation of the state Andhra Pradesh in 1956.
The book mostly brings out the basic struggles of Telengana state in the reign of Nizams, the historical background of it in the British rule under the Madras Presidency and the fear to be ruled and displaced.

14. Behind the Beautiful Forevers: Life, Death and Hope in a Mumbai Under city(2012)

A study case on a slum called Annawadi near the airport and how amidst life and death, the hope to exist continues among the slum dwellers that have always been on the verge of either to exist or get perished by the situations not controlled by them.
Katherine Boo has beautifully yet realistically presented the individual struggles being surrounded by the exterior universal and ever lying circumstances like migrancy, poverty, communal strife, existential crisis, lost political, cultural and ethnic identity making this work of nonfiction win the Pulitzer prize in 2012.

15. Gujarat Files: Anatomy of a Cover Up

Rana Ayyub’s undercover oppression where she in cognito as “Maithili Tyagi” got to interview and record conversations of the officials, officers, bureaucratic and politicians in the Gujarat riots of 2002.
Considered to be one of the daring self-published books which targeted the police encounters as something very ordinary and acceptable, directly charged Narendra Modi the guilty and Amit shah the mastermind behind the Gujarat riots and claiming all the activities as “extra-constitutional operations.”

16. The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath(1982)

Often labelled as the most controversial “confessional writer” Sylvia Plath in this unabridged journals also comes out to be someone having all the love, life, doubts, fear and hatred as a human.
The records of her adult life from Smith College to her picturesque depiction of the delivery of her children. One will be thrilled to know the various dynamic personalities of Sylvia through these journals whether it is her love for art, bitterness towards her mother, her concern about social issues or her complex relationship with her husband Ted Hughes or her children.
To know about Plath more one should go through this work of nonfiction.

17. Pax Indica: India and the World in the 21st Century(2012)

Shashi Tharoor’s Ted talks which represented India as the soft-power in the 21st century and why the world should put out for such soft-power in the upcoming years and how India with its international ties and moving from the nonalignment to multialignment can bring about the change in its foreign policy.
He talks about the bilateral relationship with Pakistan in the chapter “Brother Enemy” and how 2008 attacks created a huge gap yet the doors for generosity have always been kept opened.
He also points out how the west sees India as a “Strategic partner” while China as a “strategic competitor”.
Then he goes forward and includes other Asian countries, Arab nations, US, European, Africa And Latin America and says that to maintain a healthy and fruitful relationship with them India needs to be futuristic in its policies.

18. The Argumentative Indian(2005)

The Nobel Prize economist who in the 16 associated essays divided into four sections looks for the historical, cultural, political and economical state of India.
Amartya Sen while discussing about the pluralistic debate that Indians have indulged themselves ever since from the times of epics by divulging the arguments from the time of Akbar to Asoka.
Then he goes forth to give his cultural and spiritual tributes to two most renowned people one Rabindra Nath Tagore and the other Satyajit Ray by explaining why the west couldn’t purely experience the magnificence of these two.
In his third and fourth arguments, he throws light on the inequalities in the Indian society and how secularism and liberalism form the modern cultures.

19. Dreams from my Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance(1995)

“The Best memoir ever written by an American politician.”

Barack Obama has penned down his vivid experiences of early years from his birth to his parents’ divorce to his father’s death to his mother’s remarriage to his getting involved with alcohol, drug and party style to his personal experiences with race and race relations to his admission in the Harvard Law school.
Modelled after the Ralph Ellison’s “Invisible Man” , this memoir got reprinted in 2004 with a new preface and the keynote address of Obama from DNC. Highly praised by the writers like Philip Roth and Toni Morrison. Time magazine included this written-piece of work in its top 100 nonfiction books.

20. A Grief Observed(1961)

C S Lewis under the pseudonym N W Clerk after the demise of his wife “Joy Davidman” in 1960 went into the state of bereavement and intense loss and decided to escape this “mad midnight moments” through writing where he without any filtration has talked about how it feels to be drowned in the sea of grief where one has no idea why “sufferings keep on repeating their endless cycle” when all human beings simply want to experience happiness and bliss with the grace of God.
Being a Christian and a theologian himself, he does ask a lot of questions but at the end lets the god win philosophically as well as emotionally.
The complexity to balance between life, death and faith arises when one’s loss turns into grief and that grief into fear that is why he blurts out hopelessly

“No one ever told me that grief felt so like fear.”

Grief makes one stuck in time, the separation of a loved one shatters one mentally, emotionally and psychologically. The strength turns out to be the weakness and the person gets into the state of ever repenting persona which indulges him into the thought of everything only being a mere deception.
But as Lewis himself gives his state of mourning the sigh of relief by comforting with the quote from Dante’s Paradise

“Then she returned to the eternal fountain.”

21. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings(1969)

Though many critics consider it to be the work of fiction yet Maya Angelo herself declared that it is an autobiography where she has delineated her early years from the time she and her brother were discarded by their parents and went to live with their grandmother to the time she got pregnant from a sexual intercourse with a boy.
This is a journey of self-transformation of a girl with the guilt of being a victim to the woman who proudly accepted the motherhood.
The treatment of a black woman growing up in America when racism was at its peak is the central theme of this work along with how the “physical Assault” at the age of 8 made Angelo get completely indifferent towards the world and mostly towards her inner self and when civil rights movements broke out these trauma, tortures and the desire to resist racism, Illiteracy, the subjugation of Black women at its best got their words in several autobiographies at the age of 40. “I know why the caged bird sings” being one of them.

22. The Joy of Sex(1972)

The revolutionary and controversial book by the British author Alex Comfort at the time when Sex was still thought to be something practiced in the dark ,behind the doors and curtains.
A sex manual like Kama sutra which illustrates the different positions and details in the different types with graphical illustrations and text.
The revised edition in 2008 redefined sex in the 21st century and presented it to be something to be talked about more because of the changing mind set of people.
This work though does keep itself away from defining homosexual sex yet gives a great coverage on BDSM and includes some of the erotica from classical India and Japan. In the era of 70s it openly and boldly talked about the issues like Internet pornography, AIDS, Viagra and graphical presentation of sexual positions.

23. A Room of One’s Own(1929)

One of the for leading extended essays of two lectures delivered by Virginia Woolf in the Cambridge University. While addressing the women audience, Woolf phrases out by asking the women to have something as their own beyond the daily routine of life and concludes that they don’t need any Shakespeare to write something for them. They can be their own Shakespeare. So,

“If a woman has to write the work of fiction, she has to have a handful of money and the room of her own.”

She imagines a girl named Judith equally as gifted as Shakespeare and raises the question on her creative freedom by the society. Would she have been given the same societal and social identity as people bestow on Shakespeare or she would have been asked to be restricted to only something like household chores and daily to daily mundane activities.

24. A Hero with the Thousand Faces(1949)

The seminal and one of the most influential works by Joseph Campbell in the genre of comparative mythology in which he unearths the underlying fundamental structure of “monomyth” the word which he borrowed from James Joyce’s Finnegan’s Wake.
By taking the references from different mythologies of the world and discussing the journeys Of various individuals like Osiris, Prometheus, The Buddha, Moses, Mohammed, Jesus and the literary hero like Ulysses by Joyce, Campbell comes with the conclusion that there is a similar pattern of Separation, Initiation and Return.
The hero goes on the search of a call, meets adversities either something inner or outer , gets helped from outer sources, wins the conflict and as a result returns to where he belongs either metaphorically, subjectively, socially , objectively or spiritually.
Bringing out this intrinsic structure with the help of Jungian archetypes, Collective Unconsciousness , The rite of passages by Gennep and some of the Freudian concepts, he exerts that the hero has to follow the same basic repetitive cycle yet the individual story remains different therefore giving some of the tint of the tradition or myth as something structural but the individual talent as something post structural making the hero split into two.

25. The Siege: The Attack on the Taj(2013)

Written by Cathy Scott Clerk and Adrian Levy, the nonfiction includes the most violent descriptions of the scenes as if the only thing the attackers knew when they attacked the Taj Hotel in 2008 Mumbai attack was bloodshed and killing.
An inside view on the unreleased documents from the trial of Ajmal Kasab in India and some of the interviews of the many victims.
Depicts the Mumbai Taj attack in its vivid and descriptive ways following the only fact-based with no artificial or tampered version of the nonfiction.
0


“Divide et impera ,

                                              Fac et excusa,

                                                                                     Si fecisti, nega.”

The three most powerful political maxims out of which “Divide and Rule” is the most cited in India for having colonial aspects in itself.

Every second indian child of 50s, 60s or 70s was well acquainted with the phrase “Divide and Rule” for its colonial nature and the reason for many “Third World” countries being post colonialist especially India and Africa.

But what happened to a country which never ever faced continuous socioreligious riots before the rebellion of 1857 suddenly faced the most treacherous partition and the rule of the British Raj for almost 200 years and the tag of post colonialism which often lead many scholars to search for its

                                                             “Authenticity in Ethnicity.”

What happened to the countries like Australia, Canada, Pakistan, and Bangladesh and their crisis for identity not only culturally, religiously but also politically, economically and psychologically?

I, Vineet Pandey, 8 timesNET, 17 SET and 2 JRF from SahityaClasses will address all regarding post colonialism and postcolonial literature with special concern and references to NTA NET JRF Exam.


Let’s comprehend few basic and minute details like what postcolonial countries are; the ways of colonization; postcolonial theories and how Vineet Pandey in his Delhi based Sahitya Classes deconstructs postcolonialsim with its concepts in Vineet Pandey style.

Edward Said in his essay “Commonwealth Literature does not exist”In Imaginary Homelands states the fact that“Postcolonial countries” when named as “commonwealth” never shared the equal wealth but the torture, exploitation,

feeling of lost identity and racial as well cultural subjugation either through language replacement or religious conversion.

The use of language as the means of power and colonial education to impact the cultural imperialism and white supremacy is very much apparent when an Indian boarded on a flight or a person living in the urban cities prefers to use “only English” not only for he is an anglophilic but also empirically engraved with the notion of “Exotic Otherness” or the writers writing in the language of the colonizer to lament and willing to reach to a large number of audience most of the time for “financial stability” just inculcates the mind-set of psychologically being “colonized” even if one is physically “free”- the prominent feature of Thomas Babington Macaulay’s“Minute Upon Indian Education.”

Chinua Achebe and Ngugi Wa Thiong’o, African authors, being exceptions revolted against the very idea of “Western Exoticness” and preferred to cry in theirown native language “Igbo” , “Swahili” and “Gikuyu”- A resistance known as “Abrogation” in its postcolonial sense.

Ngugi Wa Thiong’o in his most famous work Decolonizing the Mind: the Politics of Language (1986) in African Literature accused the

                                         “English departments of propagating the colonial education”.

In his two other worksThe Black Hermit (1963) and The River Between (1965) he basically threw light on “Linguicide” and “Glottophagy”.

Chinua Achebe on other hand in Things Fall Apart(1958)records the trauma, his use of the “untranslated Igbo words” and the questions raised on the identity crisis, gender and racial, historical effect after colonization.

Characters like ‘Dr Aziz’ in A Passage to India(1924) by E M Forster, ‘Bishan Singh’ in Toba Tek Singh (1955) by Sadat Hassan Manto, ‘Nazneen’ in Brick Lane (2003) by Monica Ali, ‘Mustafa’ in Season of Migration to the North (1966) by Tayeb Salih, Caliban and Prospero in TheTempest by William Shakespeare, Kurtz in Heart of Darkness (1899) by Joseph Conrad and Changez in The Reluctant Fundamentalist (2007) by Mohsin Hamid have been the colonial victims of either class and race segregation, dislocation, identity crisis, a self-rebellion between faith and belief, cultural comparison, Inequality, language loss resulting in historical and cultural paradox in representation who when examined and studied through the lens of “postcolonial” delineate a deeper understanding of how the colonized took use of the colonizers and then left them with an undying pain to seek for the centre or the base amidst and within all the chaos.



Vineet Pandey’s videos on YouTube recorded in his offline class in Sahitya Classes Delhi dealing with post-colonialism simply and profoundly explain some concepts of Postcolonialism and how Vineet Pandey simplifies these concepts for the aspirants of NTA NET JRF Exam can also be glimpsed through but here using the same reference of Vineet Pandey’s YouTube videos and the quotations he has used, anyone can understand postcolonialism in a very easy manner.

Basic Concepts in Postcolonialism (For NTA NET JRF Exam):-

COLONIZATION:- Making its subjects “better” since the colonizers assume the colonized to be “uncivilized” with the use of Imperialism, Colonial Education, Socioeconomic and religious background, Power structure, thought process and genetic structure.

IMPERIALISM: – Mostly synonymized with “colonization” but differs when it comes to approach. Rudyard Kipling’s poem “The White man’s Burden” is often accredited for its imperialist attitude where the word “burden” is legitimized as “responsibility”.

WHITE SUPREMACY: – The belief that “White is the best.” Can be understood from the misquoted first line of the poem “The Ballad of East and West” (1889) by Rudyard Kipling

                                      “East is east and West is west andnever the twain shall meet…”

Dr Aziz’s statement in the court for Adela Quest in A Passage to India by E M Forster “My personal letters were read publically just because one WHITE lady had a doubt” also exhibits the concept of white supremacy.

AMBIVALENCE: – Adopted by Homi K Bhabha in its colonial discourse this concept brings out a very complex relationship between two subjects (Colonizer and colonized) who neither completely like each other nor fully dislike as well but both reach to a point where attraction and repulsion are found crossing paths.

Changez in Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid gives a glimpse of it when he talks about his nativity showing his authenticity still accepting the fact that he loves America.

“Ah! Seems I’ve alarmed you .Don’t be scared of me because I’ve beard, I love America.”

HYBRIDITY: – Used by Mikhail Bhaktin in its linguistics approach as something having “multivoices” but Homi Bhabha studied it from the postcolonial perspective and termed it as something “upgraded” since not only one but more than one culture, religion, language, Literature or race comes together to form something new.

Vineet Pandey can eat Pizza as well chapatti with tea is an example of hybridity in Vineet Pandey’s style.

Creolization and Pidgin also come under the category of hybridity especially linguistic hybridity.

Bishan Singh in Toba Tek Singh by Sadat Hasan Manto uses three languages showing the mixing of India and Pakistan whenever he is overwhelmed

“Upar di gur gur di annexe di bedhiyana di moong di daal of di Pakistan and Hindustan of di durr phitey mun”

Is one of the best examples of creolization.

CHUTNIFICATION: – A term used by Salman Rushdie in Midnight’s Children using the words from Hindi and Urdu and mingling them with English so that a different literary taste can come out of his novels shows his hybridity both in language as well experimentations thus coming with the phrase

                                                          “We all are translated men.”

BUTLER and CLERICAL or BABU English of Madras and Calcutta presidency fall under the kind of pidgin where they do have some grammatical formations but usually leave auxiliary verbs, participles, articles out because of it being spoken and used by the language 1 speaker without any proper training of language 2.

In Vineet Pandey style “Just for the sake of the work carried out.”

DISLOCATION: -Dislocation has to deal with the concept of Identity loss in postcolonialism- the feeling of being in-between of the subject concerned.

SPACE AND PLACE: – In Third Space theory and used by Homi Bhabha in postcolonial sense the word “space” has three different discourses and according to the use of the discourse or in other word “place” the meaning and the context of the word space keeps on changing.

In Vineet Pandey style, Space is where you are comfortable or where your heart is and place is where your body is comfortable and where your mind is.



FURTHER READINGS OF SOME TEXTS AND AUTHORS TO GRASP POSTCOLONIALISM IN AN EXTENSIVE WAY: – (Recommended by Vineet Pandey, Sahitya Classes, the best expert for NTA NET JRF in India for English Literature.)

  1. Orientalism(1978) by Edward Said (For being the foundational text in postcolonial theories)
  2. Can the Subaltern Speak?(1988) by Gayatri Spivak.
  3. Postcolonial Theory- An Introduction (1998) by Leela Gandhi.
  4. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995) by Barack Obama.
  5. Provincializing Europe (2000) by Vivek Chibber and Dipesh Chakrabarty.
  6. In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures by Aijaz Ahmad.
  7. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literature (1989)
By Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin.

Thanks for reading.
Regards
Vineet Parbhat Pandey
8 NET, 2 JRF, 17 SET
English Literature
UGC NTA NET JRF
Sahitya Classes, Delhi.
0

English Literature


“Literature is news that stays news,” says the imagist figure, Ezra Pound. Literature, I believe, is one of the most scrutinised, amazing, inspiring and incredible testimonies to mortals. Literature aids at unlocking the gateway to the treasury of the world. Literature mirrors society. Literature unravels us into distant places, ancient times, other peoples and their different ways of speaking and writing. Literature begs us to analyse, to compare and, most importantly, to question.

This paper is an attempt to explore space and scope of surrounding nature and ecology not only in the literary room but also in existential space of our life as a cosmic man to find a mutual existence of both – the nature and man.

The present paper dives into the reading of the poems of Rabindranath Tagore to explore the treatment of nature in their literary realm. Wordsworth says, “Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquillity.” Poetry is considered as a superior kind of amusement that brings divine enlightenment. Nature stands as an image of mother and teacher to the human beings which provides everything we need and it teaches us the secrets of a better life. It’s each and every activity has certain hidden secrets that human mind and eyes need to read and observe them. It has the power to connect and communicate to us and it does do it from time to time.

It has an unlimited treasure of emotions and feelings. Nature and environment is part and parcel of all living beings in this world. For instance, Tagore writes in ‘Stray Birds’ in stanza 311, “The smell of the west earth in the rain rises like a great change of praise from the voiceless multitude of insignificant.” Only a poet in love with nature could write these lines. Also, in stanza 309 in ‘Stray Birds’, where Tagore writes, “To-night there is a stir among the palm leaves/ a swell in the sea,/ Full Moon, like the heartthrob of the world./ From what unknown sky hast thou carried in/ thy silence the aching secret of love?”
Tagore

By : Laboni Das
0

English Literature



This article is focused on first 12 women ever recorded in history of English Literature.

  1. World’s first women writer – Enheduanna, the Akkadian/Sumerian poet.
  2. India’s first women writer to win Man Booker Prize – Arundhati Roy.
  3. First women to publish a book – Anne Bradstreet (book of poems, The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America).
  4. First noted Black American women poet and one of the first women to be published in colonial America – Phillis Wheatley.
  5. The first woman to read law at Oxford / the first Indian national to study at a British university and the first female lawyer in India – Cornelia Sorabji.
  6. Mother of modern African Literature – Flora Nwapa.
  7. First black women to publish fiction in the United States – Harriet E. Wilson.
  8. First African American women to win noble prize for literature – Toni Morrison.
  9. First women to write and put the role of women on stage – Aphra Behn.
  10. First African American woman to have a screenplay made into a movie – Maya Angelou.
  11. First American feminist essayist – Judith Sargent Murray. First American women to create a non-fiction – Mercy Otis Warren.
0